Augustus was born in Woburn, Massachusetts, in
Chute Secretary, National Probation Association The modern conception of crime as the result of mental, physi- cal or moral disease or retardation, to be diagnosed and treated as each individual case requires, differs profoundly from the old and simple concept that crime is wilful wrongdoing which must be repressed and punished.
This latter conception is primitive, unscientific, and out of tune with the findings of medical and social science. It proposes to treat criminals all alike in accordance with the particular crime of which they are convicted ; it meets force with force; it puts the offender out of the way temporarily or permanently; it attempts to suppress crime by getting rid of the criminal, and by ruthless severity to terrorize the rest of the community to keep within bounds of law.
To cure and prevent crime, both in individual cases and in the abstract, we must find and remove the causes. To do this we must understand the criminal, we must study him and investi- gate his environment. Having diagnosed the problem of the individual offender we shall then proceed to apply individual remedies which shall prevent his further delinquency, at the same time seeking to remove those social causes which produce crime.
Thus and thus only can we protect society and prevent crime. This statement may seem a truism, but a great many people in these days fail to accept its truth. We have been hearing about the need for more severe penalties, we have heard "cod- dling of the criminal" decried, and in some quarters there have been attacks upon the approved methods of probation, the indeterminate sentence, and parole which only seek to carry out the principle of individual treatment.
The Chicago Crime Commission, which has done valuable service fighting corrupt and inefficient administration of police and courts, has, however, in some of its pronouncements, shown a 2 total lack of appreciation of the real problem of preventing crime through reclaiming the offender.
This group of business men, like a great majority of people, is interested primarily in pro- tecting life and property and in preserving peace and order. But the methods they recommend for accomplishing these essential and primary duties of government are the very ones which have failed to suppress crime through all the ages.
Indeed, there is abundant evidence to prove that undue and indis- criminating severity has at all times bred more crime than it has cured. In a recent bulletin the Chicago Crime Commission makes this very significant statement: There has been too much meddling with the enforcement of the criminal laws by well-meaning people who do not understand crime or criminals.
There are all kinds of criminals, just as there are all kinds of sinners who have not been apprehended, and there is no inherent diff"erence in the mental and moral endowment of criminals as a class that makes it hopeless to undertake their reclamation. From the desire to understand the criminal and the humane and practical attempt to reclaim him grew up the probation system in our courts.
It has two main functions: Probation is nothing more or less than social case work in the courts, organized and legalized. Probation work in the courts grew out of the work of volunteers and representatives of private organizations detailed to the courts.
This work has been gradually taken over and developed under public auspices and 3 has become an essential part of the work of very many courts.
Probation is an American invention.
It began legally in the city of Boston in and was first developed in the state of Massa- chusetts. Probation laws have gradually extended throughout this country until today they are in force in every state in the Union. Most civilized countries have some form of legalized probation work; in several, for example, Great Britain and Canada, copied from the American system.
In some states the juvenile court, and with it of course proba- tion, has been established, but adult probation is unknown or but little developed. Today there are thirteen states, and Flor da is among them, whose laws do not provide for adult probation.
In the remaining thirty-five states there is adult probation but in a number of these it is limited to misdemeanants and first offenders; in several it applies only to non-support and family desertion. No survey has yet been made to show to what extent adult probation laws have been applied in the states which have such laws.
Doubtless a much larger percent- age of the courts dealing with adult cases are without salaried probation officers. There is today only one state in the Union, and that the pioneer state in this work, Massachusetts, where salaried probation officers are employed, and in fact required by law, in every court.
In the states of Vermont and Rhode Island there are systems of state-appointed probation officers whose services are available to all courts. In the states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Illinois, Minnesota, and Cali- fornia we may say that state-wide adult probation is in force, with probation officers employed at least in all of the larger courts.
Throughout the South there is but little probation work for adults.What factors influenced the development of probations in america? how is probation different from its early history and how is it similar? summarize your views of the overall effectiveness of probation in america.
PROBATION AND PAROLE: HISTORY, GOALS, AND DECISION-MAKING Over five million people are under the supervision of the criminal justice systems in the United States.
Approximately, million are incarcerated in local, state, and federal institutions. We looked at a variety of factors that could influence these different policy areas, including the size of the Black population, the percent of residents who graduated from high school, the percent of eligible voters who vote, the poverty rate, welfare generosity, median income, and the violent and property crime rates.
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What factors influenced the development of probation in America? It all began in the s when the “Father” of probation John Augustus, decided he wanted to help a drunk and asked the judge to release the offender into his custody. What factors influenced the development of probation in America? How is probation different today from its early history and how is it similar? Summarize your views of the overall effectiveness of probation in America. Responses should be pages. Follow APA style. . What Facts Influenced The Development Of Probation In America Bakersfield CJ Mr. Fink February 24, Probation over the past decade has become the sentence that is ruled more than any other.
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Fink February 24, Probation over the past decade has become the sentence that is ruled more than any other. Sep 29, · What factors influenced the development of probation in america? I have a question on probation history?
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