Area possibly settled up to c.
Both of these hypotheses concerning morpho-phonemic diagrams are discussed in Chapter 3where historicalexperimental and cross-linguistic evidence are presented in their suppor t. The existence of alternationsirregularities and suppletion in morphological expression is possible because of the availability of.
There are constramts on rote processinghoweve r. This question is approached much as Sapir approached it: Sapir proposed a distinction between "material content" or lexical meaning on one end of the scale and "relational content" or grammatical meaning on the other I.!
He argued that material content tends to be expressed in stems or radicalsand relational content in affixes. He emphasizedhoweverthat a given concept may in one language be treated as though it were materialwhile in another language the same concept appears as relationalmaking generalization impossible.
This is partly due to the theoretical position that grammar is independent of meaninga position that is of course not accepted here. Weinreich further expresses the opinion thatwhile it might be nice to propose that certain sorts of meaning are always grammaticaland other sorts are lexicalsuch an activity is ethnocentricfor there might be someperhaps not yet discoveredlanguage in which everything is done in the opposite fashion.
The survey of these 50 languages concentrates on verbal inflectionand its results are discussed in inany places in the book.
HoweverPart 11 is given The esoc board essay entirely to a discussion of the meanings expressed by verbal inflection and the detai!
In Part II other correlations between meaning and expression are explored. The cross-linguistic data show some evidence of a correlation between the degree of semantic reduction and the degrec of phonological reduction and fusion. We also see evidence that suggests a parallel diachronic development across languages for particular inflectional meanings.
That isthe inflections found could indeed be said to express aspecttensemood and agreement in the usual senses ofthese terms. Howeverthere is very little evidence that these conceptual categories correspond to structural categories as the traditional notion of grammatical category would predic t.
Rather it seems that each inflection develops more or less independently and may or may not have an expression that parallels other related meanings. This is lexical exprcssion. Intermediate expression types also existand are important to the general hypothesis.
Between lexicaland inflectional exor:! The hypothesis to be outlined here wi1l contribute to a better understanding of the inflectionallderivational distinctionwhich is discussed in detail in Chapter 4. Between inflectional expression and syntactic expression are various types of units that have properties of grammatical morphemesthat isthey belong to a c!
E xamples are the c1 iticized object pronouns of Spanish or Frenchor the modal auxiliaries of English maycanwilletc. These free grammatical morphemes resemble inflections in that they make up contrast sets that are obligatory in certain environments, and they have positional restrictions.
They resemble periphrastic expressions in that they are not bound to lexical stems. Free grammatical morphemes are not studied in the present workalthcugh their existence is recognized by the theory to be proposed.
These expression types form a continuum that ranges from the most highly fused means of expressionlexical expressionto the most loosely joined means of expressionsyntactic or periphrastic expression: Since there seem to be few constraints on what may be expressed syntactically, it is more interesting to focus attention on what may be expressed lexically and inflectionally.
Let us consider some examples. These two semantic i1 otions may be expressed together in a single lexical item because whether one has one's feet on dry land or in water is quitc relevant to the act of walking. In contrastwhether the sky is sunny or c1 0udy is not usually rekvant to the act of walkingso the hypothesis predicts that languages will not have separate lexical items for "walk 00 a sunny day" vs.
The latter two combinations would be more likcly to have syntactic expression.
Relevance depends on cognitive and cultural salience: This point is illustrated for motion verbs by Leonard Talmywho identifies three major lexicalization patterns for motion verbs in the languages of the wo rI d.
Thus we have motion verbs such as walkswimflyslideroll, swirl, bounce, jump and many more. Romance languages exemplify the type in which the path of the motion is included in the meaning of the verb.Click on a page below to get started, or better yet, use the powerful Panjiva Supplier Search Engine to find the suppliers from United States that best meet your needs.
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