What are the risks of taking creatine? Creatine is formed from amino acids and plays a role in converting food into energy. We get some creatine from our diets, mostly from meat and fish, and our bodies make the rest naturally.
Abstract Background Dietary supplements DSs are commercially available products consumed as an addition to the usual diet and are frequently ingested by athletes. Objective Our objective was to examine the prevalence of DS use by athletes. Search terms included specific sports, specific DSs, and other terms.
Study Selection Studies were selected if they were written in English, involved athletes, and provided a quantitative assessment of the proportion of athletes using specific DSs. Summary Measure Percent of athletes using specific DSs.
Synthesis of Data Methodological quality of studies was assessed by three reviewers using an 8-point scale that included evaluations for sampling methods, sampling frame, sample size, measurement tools, bias, response rate, statistical presentation, and description of the participant sample.
Where there were at least two investigations, meta-analysis was performed to obtain summary pooled prevalence estimates SPEs on 1 DS use prevalence by sport and sex, 2 DS use prevalence by elite versus non-elite athletic status, and 3 specific DS prevalence for all athletic groups combined.
Meta-analyses included evaluations of homogeneity and publication bias.
Results A total of unique studies met the review criteria. Despite these limitations, the data generally indicated that elite athletes used DSs much more than their non-elite counterparts.
For most DSs, use prevalence was similar for men and women except that a larger proportion of women used iron while a larger proportion of men used vitamin E, protein, and creatine.
No consistent change in use over time was observed because even the earliest investigations showed relatively high use prevalence. Conclusion It was difficult to generalize regarding DS use by athletes because of the lack of homogeneity among studies. Nonetheless, the data suggested that elite athletes used dietary supplements far more than their non-elite counterparts; use was similar for men and women with a few exceptions; use appeared to change little over time; and a larger proportion of athletes used DSs compared with the general US population.
Improvements in study methodology should be considered in future studies especially 1 defining DSs for participants; 2 querying for very specific DSs; 3 using a variety of reporting timeframes e.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Key Points When dietary supplement use was compiled by sport, elite versus non-elite athletic status, and supplement type there was high variability in use prevalence among studies.
Elite athletes appeared to use dietary supplements much more than their non-elite counterparts. For most dietary supplements, use prevalence appeared similar for men and women. Exceptions were that a larger proportion of women used iron and a larger proportion of men used vitamin E, protein, and creatine.
Open in a separate window Introduction A dietary supplement is a commercially available product that is consumed as an addition to the usual diet and includes vitamins, minerals, herbs botanicalsamino acids, and a variety of other products [ 1 ].
Marketing claims for some dietary substances include improvements in overall health status, enhancement of cognitive or physical performance, increase in energy, loss of excess weight, attenuation of pain, and other favorable effects.
Patterns of dietary supplement use may differ in distinctive subpopulations. Athletes in different sports may use different dietary supplements depending on the nature of the physical activities they perform and the desired outcomes from the dietary supplements.
In contrast, the general population appears to consume dietary supplements primarily for health-related reasons, with only minor interest in performance enhancement [ 2021 ].
Competitive athletes also need to be concerned with excessive use and possible adverse interactions due to polypharmacy [ 2223 ], and inadvertent doping due to the inadequate quality control of some dietary supplements [ 2425 ].
This paper presents a systematic literature review describing the prevalence of dietary supplement use in athletes. Where possible, meta-analyses were performed on dietary supplements by sport and sex, by elite versus non-elite athletic status, and by specific dietary supplements for all athletic groups combined.
An older review on the prevalence of vitamin and mineral supplementation by athletes is also available [ 26 ]. No limitations were placed on the dates of the searches, and the final search was completed in August These keywords were combined with nutrition, dietary supplement, supplement, vitamin, mineral, amino acid, protein, herb, herbal, sport drink, sport bar, nutriceutical, neutraceuticals, food supplements, and food supplementation.
To find additional studies, the reference lists of the articles obtained were searched, as was the literature database of an investigator with extensive experience with dietary supplement research. Eligibility Criteria Articles were selected for the review if they were 1 written in English, 2 involved athletes, and 3 provided a quantitative assessment of the proportion of athletes using dietary supplements of any type, as defined by the DSHEA of [ 2 ].
Titles were first examined and abstracts were reviewed if the article appeared to involve athletes and either nutrition or dietary supplements. The full text of the article was retrieved if there was a possibility that dietary supplements were included within the investigation.
Quantitative prevalence data could be contained within the text of the article, in tabular form, or presented in graphs.
Data presented in graphic form were estimated. If the authors did not specifically reference dietary supplement prevalence, but data were available in the article to calculate it, then the article and the data were included in the review.
Not included in the review were studies that 1 examined athletic-related occupations coaches, athletic trainers, physicians or former athletes; 2 asked athletes about dietary supplements they would like to use as opposed to actual use ; 3 asked athletes about dietary supplement use they had observed; 4 mixed athletes with non-athletes, unless the athlete data were reported separately or could be calculated from the data provided; and 5 examined dietary supplement use during competitive events because of the short timeframe and special, atypical circumstances.
A number of studies that were identified did consider intake of dietary supplements in calculating nutritional intake of various athletic groups but did not specifically report the dietary supplement prevalence and so could not be used in this review.Approximately 23% of student-athletes reported using pain medication in the past year.
Most student-athletes that reported use had a prescription for the medication. There were approximately 6% of student-athletes that indicated use without; Student-athletes who reported ADHD medication use were more likely to use without a prescription.
Creatine Monohydrate Creatine monohydrate is a body building supplement. Many athletes and trainers use it to enhance athletic performance. College athletics are an advocate for creatine when it comes to exercising and strength conditioning, But what is creatine?
Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite found in red muscle tissue. As expected, the studies which looked at endurance exercise failed to show any benefit of creatine compared to placebo.
In fact one study, which measured running performance over a 6 km course, found slower times in the creatine supplemented group (8). This effect is possibly related to the weight gain (mean 1 kg) associated with creatine use.
Creatine phosphate helps make a substance called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP provides the energy for muscle contractions. The body produces some of the creatine it uses. As such, if an athlete suffers an injury, creatine supplementation might be a worthwhile intervention.
The dose used in many studies was 20g per day, although if the athlete is already consuming creatine such a loading phase may not be required. Found that use of creatine on the day of competition seems more beneficial, though difficult to truly measure.
I suppose that where athlete's body mass index is critical to performance (e.g. wrestlers, gymnasts,swimmers) creatine "loading" has to be viewed in a different training context.