Open in a separate window We identified men who failed to use a condom during the most recent sex act with every female sexual partner in the past 12 months as having unprotected sex. Use of the NSFG, a large, nationally representative dataset, enabled us to document the association between incarceration and high-risk sex partnerships at the national level and to conduct analyses among illicit drug users and nonusers of illicit drugs separately.
How can people who have cancer learn to cope with psychological stress? What is psychological stress? Psychological stress describes what people feel when they are under mental, physical, or emotional pressure.
Stress can be caused both by daily responsibilities and routine events, as well as by more unusual events, such as a trauma or illness in oneself or a close family member. When people feel that they are unable to manage or control changes caused by cancer or normal life activities, they are in distress.
Distress has become increasingly recognized as a factor that can reduce the quality of life of cancer patients. There is even some evidence that extreme distress is associated with poorer clinical outcomes.
Clinical guidelines are available to help doctors and nurses assess levels of distress and help patients manage it.
This fact sheet provides a general introduction to the stress that people may experience as they cope with cancer. More detailed information about specific psychological conditions related to stress can be found in the Related Resources and Selected References at the end of this fact sheet.
How does the body respond during stress? The body responds to physical, mental, or emotional pressure by releasing stress hormones such as epinephrine and norepinephrine that increase blood pressure, speed heart rate, and raise blood sugar levels.
These changes help a person act with greater strength and speed to escape a perceived threat. Research has shown that people who experience intense and long-term i. People who experience chronic stress are also more prone to viral infections such as the flu or common cold and to have headaches, sleep trouble, depression, and anxiety.
Can psychological stress cause cancer? Although stress can cause a number of physical health problems, the evidence that it can cause cancer is weak. Some studies have indicated a link between various psychological factors and an increased risk of developing cancer, but others have not.
Apparent links between psychological stress and cancer could arise in several ways. How does psychological stress affect people who have cancer? People who have cancer may find the physical, emotional, and social effects of the disease to be stressful.
Those who attempt to manage their stress with risky behaviors such as smoking or drinking alcohol or who become more sedentary may have a poorer quality of life after cancer treatment.
In contrast, people who are able to use effective coping strategies to deal with stress, such as relaxation and stress management techniques, have been shown to have lower levels of depression, anxiety, and symptoms related to the cancer and its treatment.
However, there is no evidence that successful management of psychological stress improves cancer survival.
For example, some studies have shown that when mice bearing human tumors were kept confined or isolated from other mice—conditions that increase stress—their tumors were more likely to grow and spread metastasize.
In one set of experiments, tumors transplanted into the mammary fat pads of mice had much higher rates of spread to the lungs and lymph nodes if the mice were chronically stressed than if the mice were not stressed.
In another study, women with triple-negative breast cancer who had been treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy were asked about their use of beta blockers, which are medications that interfere with certain stress hormones, before and during chemotherapy.
Women who reported using beta blockers had a better chance of surviving their cancer treatment without a relapse than women who did not report beta blocker use. There was no difference between the groups, however, in terms of overall survival.
Although there is still no strong evidence that stress directly affects cancer outcomes, some data do suggest that patients can develop a sense of helplessness or hopelessness when stress becomes overwhelming.
This response is associated with higher rates of death, although the mechanism for this outcome is unclear. It may be that people who feel helpless or hopeless do not seek treatment when they become ill, give up prematurely on or fail to adhere to potentially helpful therapy, engage in risky behaviors such as drug use, or do not maintain a healthy lifestyle, resulting in premature death.
Emotional and social support can help patients learn to cope with psychological stress. Such support can reduce levels of depression, anxiety, and disease- and treatment-related symptoms among patients. Approaches can include the following:Coping-Skills Training and Cue-Exposure Therapy in the Treatment of Alcoholism Peter M.
Monti, Ph.D., and Damaris J. Rohsenow, Ph.D. in alcoholism treatment. With CST, the therapist tries to strengthen the patient’s skills in coping with situations associated with a high risk of drinking. These skills can be negative emotional states.
Teen pregnancy: Medical risks and realities. Pregnant teens have a higher risk of getting high blood pressure is invaluable in helping them get the prenatal care and emotional support they.
The medical care costs of obesity in the United States are high. In dollars, these costs were estimated to be $ billion. 15 The annual nationwide productive costs of obesity obesity-related absenteeism range between $ billion ($79 per obese individual) and .
When presented with challenging tasks, children who were found to have defects in emotional regulation (high-risk) spent less time attending to tasks and more time throwing tantrums or fretting than children without emotional regulation problems (low-risk).
These high-risk children had difficulty with self-regulation and had difficulty complying with . Screening for trauma: Immigrants and refugees to the United States may come from regions characterized by violence and extreme poverty, such as Central America, the Caribbean and some Asian and African countries, placing them at high risk for emotional and behavioral health problems.
Immigrant children may experience trauma in their country of. You risk not only compounding what is already a precarious health situation, but also overlooking the core attitude and emotional issues that caused obesity in the first place.
Instead, consider a team approach that involves several qualified health professionals.