Biology G — General Botany Prerequisites: Biology G This course is designed to satisfy the major requirements for an Associate or Baccalaureate degree in the Biological Sciences. Biology G complements Biology G and G as the third of three in a sequence of survey courses.
Charcot, Janet, and Freud all noted that fragmented memories of traumatic events dominated the mental life of many of their patient and built their theories about the nature and treatment of psychopathology on this recognition. Janet 75 thought that traumatic memories of traumatic events persist as unassimilated fixed ideas that act as foci for the development of alternate states of consciousness, including dissociative phenomena, such as fugue states, amnesias, and chronic states of helplessness and depression.
Unbidden memories of the trauma may return as physical sensations, horrific images or nightmares, behavioral reenactments, or a combination of these. Janet showed how traumatized individuals become fixated on the trauma: It is "as if their personality development has stopped at a certain point and cannot expand anymore by the addition or assimilation of new elements.
The trauma permanently disturbed the capacity to deal with other challenges, and the victim who did not integrate the trauma was doomed to "repeat the repressed material as a contemporary experience in instead or.
Many traumatized people expose themselves, seemingly compulsively, to situations reminiscent of the original trauma. These behavioral reenactments are rarely consciously understood to be related to earlier life experiences.
This "repetition compulsion" has received surprisingly little systematic exploration during the 70 years since its discovery, though it is regularly described in the clinical literature.
Children seem more vulnerable than adults to compulsive behavioral repetition and loss of conscious memory of the trauma. However, responses to projective tests show that adults, too, are liable to experience a large range of stimuli vaguely reminiscent of the trauma as a return of the trauma itself, and to react accordingly.
Harm to Others Re-enactment of victimization is a major cause of violence. Criminals have often been physically or sexually abused as children. Lewis 89,91 has extensively studied the association between childhood abuse and subsequent victimization of others. Recently, she showed that of 14 juveniles condemned to death for murder in the United States in12 had been brutally physically abused, and five had been sodomized by relatives.
This constellation of symptoms is a common phenomenon among a member of environmentally deprived animals. Green 53,54 found that 41 per cent of his sample of abused children engaged in headbanging, biting, burning, and cutting.
In a controlled, double-blind study on traumatic antecedents of borderline personality disorder, we found a highly significant relationship between childhood sexual abuse and various kinds of self-harm later in life, particularly cutting and self-starving.
They sum up the conclusions of many students of this problem in stating that "self-destructive activities were not primarily related to conflict, guilt and superego pressure, but to more primitive behavior patterns originating in painful encounters wih hostile caretakers during the first years of life.
Victims of child sexual abuse are at high risk of becoming prostitutes. Whereas 38 per cent of a random sample of women reported incidents of rape or attempted rape after age 14, 68 per cent of those with a childhood history of incest did.
Twice as many women with a history of physical violence in their marriages 27 per centand more than twice as many 53 per cent reported unwanted sexual advances by an unrelated authority figure such as a teacher, clergyman, or therapist.
Victims of father-daughter incest were four times more likely than nonincest victims to be asked to pose for pornography. In one study of adults who who had recently been in accidents, 68 57 per cent showed behavioral re-enactments, and 51 per cent had recurrent intrusive images.
In this study, the frequency with which recurrent memories were experienced on a somatic level, as panic and anxiety attacks, was not examined.Addiction to Drugs and Alcohol - There are many affects that drugs and alcohol can have on the body, and on the life of a person.
Thousands of jobs, homes, and families are lost annually through the addictions of drugs and alcohol. Gary Gutting is a Notre Dame philosophy professor who thinks that what counts about arguments is whether they “work.” And so his complaint against natural-law arguments for Catholic teachings about sex is that they “no longer work (if they ever did)”.
His New York Times “Opinionator” post of March 1. Drug Addiction as a Psychobiological Process The emphasis is on biological mechanisms underlying addiction, although some other factors influencing drug addiction will also be discussed.
The presentation is limited primarily to psychomotor stimulants (e.g., amphetamine, cocaine) and opiates (e.g., heroin, morphine) for two reasons.
Addiction to Drugs and Alcohol - There are many affects that drugs and alcohol can have on the body, and on the life of a person. Thousands of jobs, homes, and families are lost annually through the addictions of drugs and alcohol. During the formative years of contemporary psychiatry much attention was paid to the continuing role of past traumatic experiences on the current lives of people.
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