This exploratory study thus investigates through questionnaires how Chinese students view and understand a set of communicative coursebooks—CECL, short for Communicative English for Chinese Learners in classrooms. Questionnaires were distributed to English majors who have studied the material for at least one year at university. Metaphors are used in the questionnaire to pin point both the strengths and weaknesses of the coursebook. By analyzing and categorizing metaphors by the students, the study found that students were generally positive about the material since they regarded the coursebook as all-inclusive, authentic, communicative, culture-bound and stimulating.
Because each speech act could be performed using a variety of different linguistic forms that vary greatly in terms of illocutionary force, this lack of information puts learners, particularly EFL learners with little target language exposure, at a disadvantage in terms of acquiring pragmatic competence.
The following discussion deals with three major areas of metapragmatic information: Terms such as formal and informal, polite and impolite are used throughout all eight texts, though descriptions of situations which may require formal or polite usage in terms of social relationships between interlocutors, status differences, or other contextual factors are rarely included.
The richest grammar book in terms of metalinguistic and metapragmatic information is Intermediate grammar: From form to meaning and use. Also included in Intermediate grammar: From form to meaning and use, is discussion of different forms in realizing speech acts requesting, complaining, etc.
In addition to the formality discussions characteristic of grammar metalanguage, it includes directives relevant to polite expression as well as warnings against rudeness: Imperatives can easily sound rude or angry, depending on the situation and your tone of voice.
Please helps to soften a command. Using modals such as would and could is a more polite and indirect way to tell someone to do something.
From form to meaning and use,p. The majority of politeness commentary co-occurs with lessons on modals, and in some cases, specific sections on social modals.
In Understanding and Using English Grammar, students are asked to decide "which sentence is stronger"p. From form to meaning and use includes a significant amount of metapragmatic information concerning the use of social modals: Modals also called modal auxiliaries change the meaning of the main verb in many ways.
Modals are used to make requests, ask for permission, ask for advice, and offer suggestions. They also express what is necessary or not necessary, and what is not allowed. Social modals express politeness, formality, and authority in different kinds of social situations. Often there are several modals you can use in a particular situation.
The modal you choose can make what you say sound more polite or less polite, more formal or less formal. Your situation and your relationship to the listener may help you decide which modal to choose. Consider, for example, how well you know the listener.
Is there a difference in your ages? Is one of you in a position of greater authority or power? Is one of you the boss?
In Interchange 2, samples of language for refusing a request are given without any mention to the significant differences in utterances in terms of illocutionary force see Figure 1 below. You must be kidding!. You must be kidding! The classroom teacher would hopefully point out the differences among each refusal form presented, but this cannot be guaranteed.
In Focus on Grammar, there is discussion of formality, register variation, and indirect speech acts which primarily consist of reported speech: In most textbooks, students are informed that the use of modals imply different meanings: Occasionally, modals are linked explicitly to particular speech acts, as shown in Focus on Grammar: The association of speech act functions to particular forms limits the range of language students have available to perform a certain speech act.
A key element of acquiring pragmatic competence involves selection from multiple forms to convey illocutionary force; if students have only one form available, they are essentially not making pragmatic choices Bardovi-Harlig, From form to meaning and use, the negative form of will is described as "used to make refusals"p.
However, there are other and often, more pragmatically appropriate and polite, ways to refuse. Not explaining to students the ramifications of using a particular form, or that there exist several forms to convey the same speech act ultimately does them a disservice and can result in pragmatic tension or pragmatic failure.
Register discussions frequently occurred in grammar textbooks, distinguishing usage in written and spoken language: In Grammar Links 3, a section included in several but not all chapters entitled "Talk the Talk" provides information contrasting spoken and written forms of English, and generally consists of warnings not to use spoken forms such as gonna or contractions in written work, although the discussion of social modals includes a section which encourages students to consider authority in relation to politeness when giving advice.
In three of the four grammar textbooks, issues of formality and the differences between speaking and writing are mentioned; however, quite infrequently and without any contextual information which would indicate appropriate contexts social or otherwise which would require formal usage, nor any discussion of the differences between formality and register.coursebook for young learners Ling Lin Foreign Languages School, China Three Gorges University, Yichang City, Hubei Province, China The study presented here means to give some insightful analysis of course book evaluation and brings forth a For the English course book for young learners, the evaluation criteria should be: textbooks.
This 4-week course addresses specific issues in an analysis of an english course book for foreign learners assessment, intervention and identification strategies that are most effective in separating difference. Explore your options below. Learners come to adult English as a Second Language programs for important, of course, is using formal assessment tools to gauge learner progress.
For a book for reading, and a pen for writing. Post one skill card in each corner of the room. 3. Ask the students (and demonstrate, if necessary) to stand by the card representing the. A Critical Analysis of Tasks in EFL Textbook: A Case Study of Sunrise 12 tasks would enable our prospective English language learners to function successfully in 1- What kinds of task types are utilized in the Sunrise 12 English language course book?
Literature review Communicative Language Teaching.
Criteria for coursebook assessment This textbook should be used by learners of English at a secondary level. That is why it is meant to respond to the needs of a specific group of students, furthermore, it offers supplementary materials for both the student and the teacher, as to enable a b.
Teaching English as a Foreign Language provides in-depth study and training in best practices and methodology for teaching English learners, which involves (a) teaching English to non-immigrants in a multilingual classroom, and (b) teaching English in an Advanced Analysis of English Sentence Structure I (3 units).